$ yum install yumex
After installation we can run
$ yumex & to launch the yum extender
or we can goto Applications> System tools > yum extender
Fig. 1. The racetrack is a ferromagnetic nanowire, with data encoded as a pattern of magnetic domains along a portion of the wire. Pulses of highly spin-polarized current move the entire pattern of DWs coherently along the length of the wire past read and write elements. The nanowire is approximately twice as long as the stored DW pattern, so the DWs may be moved in either direction. (A) A vertical-configuration racetrack offers the highest storage density by storing the pattern in a U-shaped nanowire normal to the plane of the substrate. The two figures show the magnetic patterns in the racetrack before and after the DWs have moved down one branch of the U. past the read and write elements, and then up the other branch. (B) A horizontal configuration uses a nanowire parallel to the plane of the substrate. (C)Reading data from the stored pattern is done by measuring the tunnel magnetoresistance of a magnetic tunnel junction element connected to the racetrack. (D) Writing data is accomplished, for example, by the fringing fields of a DW moved in a second ferromagnetic nanowire oriented at right angles to the storage nanowire. (E) Arrays of racetracks are built on a chip to enable high-density storage.
RM is fundamentally a shift register in which the data bits (the DWs) are moved to and fro along any given racetrack to intersect with individual reading and writing elements integrated with each racetrack.Permalloy is the term for a nickel iron magnetic alloy. Generically, it refers to an alloy with about 20% iron and 80% nickel content. Permalloy has a high magnetic permeability, low coercivity, near zero magnetostriction, and significant anisotropic magnetoresistance.
High K Metal Gate Technology (HKMG)
i-Room is a state-of-the-art, self-configuring lighting control system solution for bedrooms, offices and perimeter areas. Under automatic operation, the system senses luminosity inside and outside a room, dims the LED’s to maintain a prescribed level of illumination inside the room. i-Room is an smart system that saves energy by keeping unoccupied cells of a large room unlit and maximizing the use of available natural light inside the room. By operating on a feedback loop where the system senses light and the presence of people, the system makes smart decisions on how to best illuminate the space according to presence of people and control the brightness according to ambient light. The project is very expandable and versatile. The heart of the system is the state synthesizer PIC 16F883 which is an 8 bit CMOS microcontroller. The sensors of the system are LASER-LDR pair that is available and can be set up easily. In the long-run, i-Room provides control solutions that reduce energy costs and extend lamp life.
i-ROOM is a simplified version of systems and equipments sold at high prices in the high-income housing segment as well as high-visibility public buildings. With improvements, i-ROOM could also be used in architecture projects to enhance prototypes and models of buildings.
There are available at least two broad categories of automatic lighting control systems for rooms. Automatic lighting control systems falling into the first broad category consist of a plurality of discrete, self-contained automatic lighting control modules which operate essentially independently of one another for controlling the lighting conditions in respective separate sections of a large room. Automatic lighting control systems falling into the second broad category employ a of sensors for detecting the illumination levels and/or presence of persons in each part of the room and a programmable central controller which analyzes the sensor feedback signals in accordance with a lighting control program, and outputs control signals to adjust the lighting levels of the monitored regions of the room in accordance with the lighting control program. In this connection, automatic lighting control modules in each part of the room are operated under the control of the programmable central controller. Thus, rather than operating independently of one another, the distributed modules are functionally integrated into a single room-wide network under the control of the programmable central controller. …………………
In the type of system of first category, each light source is provided with an automatic control device which includes a presence detector (e.g., a motion detector or a passive infra-red detector) and a light intensity detector (e.g., a photocell detector). In operation, each automatic control device functions to switch its corresponding light source on when an occupant is detected in its localized area of coverage and to vary the intensity (brightness) of the light produced by its corresponding light source in response to variations in the sensed ambient or background light level in its localized area of coverage. In this manner, adequate lighting is provided in all occupied areas despite variations in the ambient lighting conditions present in various zones of the room.
Another way of implementing system includes one or more individual dimming controllers each of which controls the light intensity (brightness) of one or more light sources in a room or localized area of the building which is lit by internal light and external light. In particular, each dimming controller adjusts the intensity of the internal light in dependence on the external light intensity, which varies with the time of day and atmospheric conditions. The intensity and direction of the external light is sensed by external light sensors. Each of the light sources in the various sections of a large room can be provided with an individual dimmer, to thereby enable the intensity of the different light sources to be individually adjusted in such a manner as to provide either a uniform or non-uniform light intensity profile. In general, the light intensity of the internal light is controlled in substantially inverse dependence on the external light, e.g., when the external light decreases the light inside the room is made brighter.
A more advanced automatic lighting control system of the first category developed so far is a programmable illumination system which includes a plurality of individual illumination units each of which is provided with a programmable controller which functions to automatically adjust the light level of its associated illumination unit to a prescribed (programmed) light output level for each of a plurality of different illumination modes. Such an illumination system has particular utility in a space, such as a living room, offices, or shop, in which various different tasks which require different lighting conditions are to be performed. An illumination mode is defined as a particular setting of the light output levels of all illumination units in a particular illumination area for providing a desired illumination profile for a particular task to be performed (or desired ambience) in that particular illumination area. After initial programming of the system, the system automatically adjusts the output levels of the individual illumination units to the proper level for a selected illumination mode.A or hard-wired remote controller can be utilized to program each of the individual illumination units of the system.
The automatic lighting control system of the second category developed includes a programmable microprocessor-based central controller which is responsive to feedback signals produced by a network of presence and light sensors distributed throughout various sections of a room to automatically control the light output levels of lighting units in different zones of the room. The system is equipped with an override feature to enable room occupants to override one or more of the automatic lighting features of the system, e.g., to enable the lights to be turned off, despite the sensed presence of people in a room. For example turning off lights for the operation of an overhead projector (OHP).
A more advanced automatic lighting control system of the second category includes a plurality of illumination sensors distributed throughout the building, but advantageously not necessarily in a one-to-one relationship to the light sources distributed throughout the room. In this connection, a generally lesser number of illumination sensors than light sources are strategically placed inside (and outside, if desired) of the room in order to provide a non-redundant set of measurements of internal illumination. These measurements are then collectively processed by a central automatic control device which preferably includes a neural network or a fuzzy logic unit. The automatic control device is programmed with a set of inference rules chosen to meet user-defined comfort and/or energy efficiency criteria. In operation, the automatic control device automatically controls the light output levels of the light sources throughout the room in accordance with the user-defined inference rules to thereby meet the user-defined comfort and/or energy efficiency criteria. Various user-selectable customized usage modes can be programmed to enable room occupants to vary the general lighting conditions in a selected or area(s) of the room in accordance with various usage requirements by merely selecting the appropriate usage mode desired by the occupants of the room.
A major shortcoming of all presently known automatic lighting control systems is that none of them are designed to optimize the energy efficiency of a room lighting system for a target energy consumption level and a prescribed set of lighting system usage parameters and constraints. Thus, there exists a need in the art for an automatic lighting control system which overcomes this and other limitations, disadvantages, and shortcomings of the presently known automatic lighting control systems.
Presently methods for optimizing the energy efficiency of a lighting system which includes a plurality of light sources, which includes the steps of defining a set of parameters for the lighting system, and using a linear programming technique, taking into account the set of parameters, to produce energy allocation output data which satisfies a total energy consumption constraint that the total energy allocated to the lighting system not exceed a target energy consumption level, and which is representative of an optimal allocation of to each of the light sources. The lighting system is installed in a room which includes a plurality of sections each of which is equipped with light sources.
The terms "room", and "light source" can be used in their broadest possible sense. For example, the term "room" can be intended to encompass any structure which has a lighting system, including, but not limited to, single-family homes, multi-family dwellings, apartment buildings, office buildings, warehouses, factories, gymnasiums, auditoriums, theaters, museums, shops, restaurants, hotels, shopping malls, and indoor stadiums. The term "room" is intended to encompass any identifiable, separately lighted portion, zone, sector, or localized area of a building, including, but not limited to, conventional rooms such as offices, bathrooms, closets, storage areas, factory floors, basements, conference rooms, foyers, common areas, utility rooms, or any associated set of such separately lighted portions or zones, sectors, or localized areas of the building whose lighting is intended to be commonly controlled. The term "light source" is intended to encompass not only individual lamps, but also any associated set or group of lamps which are intended to be commonly controlled, e.g., all of the lamps associated with a given room in the building.
The room is divided into three cells named C0 C1 and C2. S0, S1 and S2 are state variables that store the present state of the cell (i.e. state is 1 if people are present in the cell and 0 if cell is vacant). A small region near the door is assigned a state variable S3.
It is an intermediate state that is used to determine entry into and exit from the room. L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 are the sensors placed in the room to determine the transition of people across the room through various cells. This is necessary to determine the present state of each cell so as to do automatic lighting up of an LED array provided in each cell if count of people is the cell is greater than zero. The LED array in each cell is OFF if the cell is empty.
The automatic lighting system control is implemented with the help of a state synthesizer, which generates the next state with the help of present state and sensor inputs. A program is written and the artificial intelligence is created by burning that program into the microcontroller that emulates the function of a state synthesizer.The state transitions are detected by the sensor inputs and past states. The output of the state synth is the state itself hence its a moore one.